Published 19 december 2019, Urban Ecosystem
Minimal stories in Southeast Buenos Aires grasslands: carabid beetle biodiversity throughout an urban-rural gradient
Adela V. Castro, Darío P. Porrini, Sebastián Lupo & Armando C. Cicchino
Urbanization modifies the original habitat and the biodiversity. Research throughout urban-rural gradients allows the monitoring of human activities on the biodiversity of native environments. Our aims were to a) record the diversity of edaphic coleopteran families and carabid species in native grassland remnants of urban, suburban and rural areas; b) identify potential taxa exclusively associated with urban and rural sites, respectively, or indifferent to such categorization; and c) compare the body sizes, wing morphology and trophic groups of carabid beetles in the three levels of urbanization. Our results showed that carabid species richness is higher in urban areas, but we found no difference in the number of families of edaphic coleopterans. One species, the eurytopic Argutoridius bonariensis, dominated in all areas; but in the suburban and rural areas it shared the dominance with stenotopic Argutoridius sp. N° 2. Carabid species assemblages did not exactly reflect the urban-rural gradient selected a priori. Regarding size variation, we found that large size species were more abundant in two urban sites; wing-dimorphic and apterous species were more abundant in urban areas. In reference to trophic groups, we recorded larger number of omnivores in the urban areas. We showed that some species can develop and survive in cities while others cannot, creating and sustaining a “new” urban ecosystem, with its own history, rules, dynamics and internal ecological memory.
Acceso al artículo: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11252-019-00925-y
Soil Environ. 38(2): 151-161, 2019
Indigenous arbuscular mycorrhiza and Trichoderma from systems with soybean predominance can improve tomato growth
In the last decades, there has been a tendency towards sustainable agriculture. Following this trend, edaphic fungi as Trichoderma and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could increase plant growth contributing to diminish agricultural chemical supply. However, little information exists in current research regarding the possible effects of alternative practices to soybean monoculture systems on fungal groups that could contribute to plant health and/or productivity. Thus, our objective was to assess changes in the abundance and diversity of indigenous AMF and Trichoderma from a long-term field experiment located in the Argentinean Pampas, in order to test the effect of alternative practices to soybean monoculture. The fungal ability to promote the growth of crops, such us tomato plant was also tested. Soil samples were collected from a soybean monoculture system (Sb), a system including cover crop (Avena sativa) followed by soybean (CC/Sb) and a system including rotations (rot) of SoybeanMaize-Wheat crops CC/Sb-rot, M-rot and W-rot, respectively. Highest AMF and Trichoderma abundance was found at W-rot and M-rot systems, and highest AMF diversity was found at W-rot and CC systems. Furthermore, highest mycorrhizal colonization was found at CC/Sb and W-rot systems. Inoculated plants with single AMF consortium or with Trichoderma strains showed significant increases in comparison with the control. Dual inoculation increased tomato plant growth as compared to the control, and evidence of synergism was found by increases in shoot and root growth. Our results show that dual inoculation with indigenous AMF and Trichoderma from alternative crop systems to soybean monoculture could play an important role in tomato plant growth. This information could be useful to decrease production costs and environmental impacts.
- Mycorrhizal colonization
- Cover crops
- Crop rotation systems
Link a la revista:
Tomato plants growth after 45 days. A: (from left to right) without inoculation (control), inoculated with AMF W-rot, Tch W-rot and inoculated with both fungi (AMF+Tch W-rot). B: (from left to right) without inoculation (control), inoculated with AMF CC/Sb, Tch CC/Sb and inoculated with both fungi (AMF+Tch CC/Sb).
Sucrose-to-ethanol microalgae-based platform using seawater
(* These authors contributed equally)
• Bioprospecting for native sucrose-accumulating microalgal strains
• Induction of sucrose and lipid accumulation using seawater
• Mild sugar-extraction conditions and direct conversion into ethanol
• Modeled productivity of 4200 L ethanol·ha−1·year−1 in raceway ponds in Brazil
Microalgal biomass is increasingly considered a promising feedstock for the production of bioethanol because it has simpler biochemical composition and structural features than plant feedstocks. However, it still requires hazardous and/or expensive acid or enzymatic saccharification processes before its conversion into ethanol by fermentation. To bypass this limitation, we identified microalgal strains that accumulate up to 10% (w/w) of sucrose, a readily fermentable sugar. Conditions were optimized to produce sucrose in half-strength seawater, as well as efficient extraction by very mild procedures, and conversion into ethanol. We present a model based on cultivation in environmental photobioreactors that predicted a productivity of 4200 L ethanol·ha−1·year−1 in raceway ponds in Brazil, approaching the average sucrose and ethanol productivity from sugarcane.
- Water footprint
Link a la revista:
Volume 83, September 2019, Pages 1-8, Journal of Stored Products Research
Degradation of gluten proteins by Fusariumspecies and their impact on the grain quality of bread wheat
•Degradation kinetic of storage proteins depends on the incubation period.
•Different Fusarium species can affect negatively the gluten strength.
•Different responses could be related to subunits composition of wheat genotypes.
The protein quality of wheat, the most important crop worldwide, is affected by the presence of fungi, mainly those belonging to the Fusarium genus. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of Fusarium spp. on ground wheat grains quality by measuring gluten strength and quantifying the gliadin/glutenin content. A total of 23 Fusarium spp. isolates and two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes with contrasting baking quality were used in the investigation. The results of SDS sedimentation test (SDSS) revealed that the presence of Fusarium species significantly affected the gluten strength negatively; while F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum are the species that predominantly affected the SDSS values. Principal component analysis of gluten composition showed that the effect of Fusarium species on gluten composition depended on the wheat genotypes analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed that all the Fusarium species used as inoculum produced severe effects on grain quality and gluten composition on both the genotypes. In summary, our results showed that the presence of Fusarium spp. impaired storage proteins affecting the wheat dough properties. Therefore, constant monitoring is necessary to reduce the presence of Fusarium in the food chain for reducing the negative potential impact on bread quality.
Acceso al artículo: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022474X19300608
Ground Beetles in a Changing World: Communities in a Modified Wetland Landscape
Wetlands are being increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities worldwide. The Lower Delta of the Paraná River, one of the most important wetlands in Argentina, has been profoundly altered because most of the natural environments were drained or diked to make them suitable for different agricultural activities. As a result, the landscape is characterized by a mosaic of Salicaceae afforestations of different ages interspersed with patches of secondary forests and grazing grasslands. The high susceptibility of Carabidae and Aphodiidae to natural and human-induced disturbances and management practices is reflected by changes in their spatiotemporal distribution. We performed a 1-year study to analyze and compare beetle’s communities inhabiting different habitat types in this modified wetland landscape. A total of 58 beetle species were recorded, of which 48 were carabids and 10 aphodids. Although species richness and diversity were higher in productive habitats (afforestations and grasslands) than in secondary forests, hydrophilic species were only found in the latter. Community parameters varied seasonally. Our results indicate a close relationship between wetland beetle communities and vegetation cover in each habitat type. Human activity increases heterogeneity across this landscape, which favors the colonization of new species but causes the loss or displacement of autochthonous species. The secondary forests could serve as alternative habitats for beetles typical of humid environments. We propose the maintenance of the current heterogeneous mosaic to favor the diversity of ground beetles and the implementation of changes in water management for the benefit of hydrophilic beetle species.
Carabidae Aphodiidae habitat type secondary forests hydrophilic beetle