Volume 83, September 2019, Pages 1-8, Journal of Stored Products Research
Degradation of gluten proteins by Fusariumspecies and their impact on the grain quality of bread wheat
•Degradation kinetic of storage proteins depends on the incubation period.
•Different Fusarium species can affect negatively the gluten strength.
•Different responses could be related to subunits composition of wheat genotypes.
The protein quality of wheat, the most important crop worldwide, is affected by the presence of fungi, mainly those belonging to the Fusarium genus. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of Fusarium spp. on ground wheat grains quality by measuring gluten strength and quantifying the gliadin/glutenin content. A total of 23 Fusarium spp. isolates and two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes with contrasting baking quality were used in the investigation. The results of SDS sedimentation test (SDSS) revealed that the presence of Fusarium species significantly affected the gluten strength negatively; while F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum are the species that predominantly affected the SDSS values. Principal component analysis of gluten composition showed that the effect of Fusarium species on gluten composition depended on the wheat genotypes analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed that all the Fusarium species used as inoculum produced severe effects on grain quality and gluten composition on both the genotypes. In summary, our results showed that the presence of Fusarium spp. impaired storage proteins affecting the wheat dough properties. Therefore, constant monitoring is necessary to reduce the presence of Fusarium in the food chain for reducing the negative potential impact on bread quality.
Acceso al artículo: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022474X19300608
Ground Beetles in a Changing World: Communities in a Modified Wetland Landscape
Wetlands are being increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities worldwide. The Lower Delta of the Paraná River, one of the most important wetlands in Argentina, has been profoundly altered because most of the natural environments were drained or diked to make them suitable for different agricultural activities. As a result, the landscape is characterized by a mosaic of Salicaceae afforestations of different ages interspersed with patches of secondary forests and grazing grasslands. The high susceptibility of Carabidae and Aphodiidae to natural and human-induced disturbances and management practices is reflected by changes in their spatiotemporal distribution. We performed a 1-year study to analyze and compare beetle’s communities inhabiting different habitat types in this modified wetland landscape. A total of 58 beetle species were recorded, of which 48 were carabids and 10 aphodids. Although species richness and diversity were higher in productive habitats (afforestations and grasslands) than in secondary forests, hydrophilic species were only found in the latter. Community parameters varied seasonally. Our results indicate a close relationship between wetland beetle communities and vegetation cover in each habitat type. Human activity increases heterogeneity across this landscape, which favors the colonization of new species but causes the loss or displacement of autochthonous species. The secondary forests could serve as alternative habitats for beetles typical of humid environments. We propose the maintenance of the current heterogeneous mosaic to favor the diversity of ground beetles and the implementation of changes in water management for the benefit of hydrophilic beetle species.
Carabidae Aphodiidae habitat type secondary forests hydrophilic beetle
Link a la revista:
Nuevo artículo científico, grupo: Biología e interacciones de los hongos en sistemas naturales y agroalimentarios
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad. Vol. 89, núm. 3 (2018)
Registro de Sclerotium rolfsii como causante de pudrición de corona y raíces de Pseudogynoxis benthamii
New host record of Sclerotium rolfsii causing crown and root rot on Pseudogynoxis benthamii
En marzo de 2016, de un total de 40 plantas de Pseudogynoxis benthamii cultivadas en Buenos Aires, Argentina, se observó marchitez en 10 de ellas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar el agente causal de la enfermedad. Se obtuvieron 5 aislados fúngicos de características similares a partir de esclerocios desarrollados sobre las raíces, de los cuales se seleccionó 1, que luego de ser inoculado en plantas sanas, causó síntomas en un período de 2 semanas. El patógeno fue identificado como Sclerotium rolfsii sobre la base de sus características morfológicas. Se amplificó y secuenció la región de la espaciadora interna transcrita de ADN ribosomal del núcleo del aislado. El análisis de ADN mostró 99-100% de similitud para S. rolfsii. Este es el primer reporte de S. rolfsii como agente causal de marchitez en P. benthamii y el primer patógeno citado sobre esta especie en el mundo.